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Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Faculty of Humanities, Social- and Educational sciences Institute of Political sciences), course: Human Rights - Concepts, Cases and Criticisms, language: English, abstract: Female genital mutilation, a practise that involves the cutting of the female genital organs in order to prepare the victim to Womanhood" (Rahman / Toubia 1995: 1) has been in practise for many centuries in many parts of the world - mostly in African and some Asian countries (Lightfoot-Klein, 1989; Mackie, 1996). It is considered a rite of passage after which the victim is considered a mature woman hence morally upright and ready for marriage. Traditionally, it has neither been done under an anaesthetic nor by experts, something that makes the practise even more deadly especially at such dangerous times of the HIV pandemic although more recent researches have shown a tendency of it being practised by medical professionals. Many communities practise the tradition with or without the knowledge of its harmfulness whereas those who know about it continue to do so due to fear of stigmatisation by the societies to which they belong. As mentioned, the Female genital cutting is a practise that did not start in the recent past. Campaigners against the tradition have always argued that it has no positive effect apart from depriving women of their sexual rights (Yet exposing them to dangerous life threatening conditions). As will be discussed later in the report, there are different methods in which FGM is practised depending on the diversity of various communities. In the past decades, efforts to eradicate the tradition have been lifted and still continue to do so but in spite of the efforts some communities have resulted to practising it secretly for fear of arrest and persecution. This is something that has brought about a big chall